Why Dating Shows Are so Popular in China Nowadays Essay 1.Introduction In recently years, Chinese television has been picking up the trends of reality shows, especially dating shows. These fast emerging match making shows have captured millions of viewers and have become very popular in Chinese society. Although the shows contain lots of problems and bring up many controversial topics in our lives, nearly everyone in China is enthusiastically watching one or more of these weekly dating shows. The question is, why? Historic reasons, social reasons and commercial reasons have all contributed to the dating shows popularity. 2.Dating shows nowadays Every Saturday and Sunday night on television, a jury of more or less than 20 single women question a few guys one by one after watching his introductory videos; then press a button to turn off the light if they think the guy is not â€œdate-worthyâ€. After three rounds of interaction, if there are girls keeping the light on for the candidate and he likes one of them, he succeeds in the match. And if all twenty-four lights go off, the male loses. In turn, guys can first choose his favorite girl and if he survives the trial, he will have a chance to pick a girl for a date. Most of the shows have the similar pattern. Sometimes situations would inverse, which is a jury of guys can judge a few women one by one. Basically it could be describe as a process of young men and women judging and choosing each other. If lucky, one could find himself or herself a date. Apart from the participants, there will be a humorous host to help organize; also, there will be two or three guest experts to give comments and advice to the participants. 3. Historic Reasons The changing of Chinese women For centuries, patriarchy was rooted deeply in Chinese society. Chinese women owned very limited choice in their lives, especially their marriages. In fact, in Han Dynasty, the Three Obediences and Four Virtues that set the standards of behavior for women. It required women to obey her father and other male family members. In traditional Chinese culture, females should be quiet, tender, compliant and conservative. Pillai (2009) said in her article Women in the Ancient Chinese Culture, â€œFor almost two thousand years, the life of the Chinese woman was unbearable.â€ Therefore, they had almost no freedom in choosing husbands. As they have equal chances to receive higher education as men do, now urban Chinese women are becoming more open and self-confident. Faced with completely unfamiliar male candidates, knowing their performance will be shown on TV to millions of viewers, the ladies on stage are never afraid of speaking their opinions on life and marriage and make judgments on the male candidates. It seems that women are in charge of the gameâ€”they decide a manâ€™s fate on the stage. All these facts seem to indicate that the Chinese society is going to enter an era of feminism. So compared to ancient China, women in modern China are offered a lot more opportunities to take positions and influence society in their own way. The changing of Chinese dating pattern Back in ancient China, a matchmaker was instrumental in settling a marriage. They provided communications and consulting astrogical charts to ensure the compatibility of the prospective bride and groom as well as the two families. So in ancient China, there was little opportunity for getting to know your future partner, since the heads of the bride and groomâ€™s families would arrange marriages. Sometimes the couples first meeting was on the day of their wedding, a situation most singles today would find outrageous. What is happening today is both men and women are giving more freedom when comes to choosing who to date and who to marry. One can decide his or her date based on various personal standards. By participating dating shows, participants can meet all kinds of potential partners and more likely to find someone who fits their requirements. The changing of peopleâ€™s attitude towards dating and marriage According to the previous historic reasons, men and women could hardly meet each other before marrying. Therefore, their marriages were purely for reproducing, for relations between families and mostly for stable life for the rest of the lives. So in ancient China, when a man or woman tried to find a life partner, they were not really looking for a love of the life rather than a wife who can take good care of the family or a financially reliable husband. According to what Chen (2003) said in her article Marriage and the Family in China, â€œto many people nowadays, income, housework and procreation are no longer top priorities; more important is having a loving, loyal and understanding spouse.â€ To make a conclusion, two people marry nowadays is because the pleasure that connubial relationship brings them. 4.Social Reasons Viewersâ€™ psychology When browsing the Internet, you can see lots of people are talking about the dating shows. The funny part is, lots of people donâ€™t really buy the performance or the fake romance on stage and they are talking about how lack of intelligence those shows are. Then why those shows are still so popular? I read lots of peopleâ€™s comments and it shows that many people are watching those so-called boring shows because they are boring after work or on the weekends. Watching those dating shows can take large amount of their dull time. Moreover, viewers have been intrigued by the guests outspoken remarks and the occasional arguments that break out. Liu (2011), the Chinese psychiatrist claims that curiosity is born with human beings, so the curiosity and the tendency to the privacy are innate. As another reason why people enjoy the show, viewers tend to enjoy watching other peopleâ€™s sometime dramatic dating process and conversations during partners, which originally should be private and personal. Social controversial topics bring up by the shows The show is more than a dating game. It is like a multi-dimensional mirror that reflects social values.â€”Lin (2010). Materialism Bergman (2010) writes in his article, Chinaâ€™ TV Dating Shows: For Money or for Love, that in China, more and more young women nowadays consider true love as materials. In spite of the outlook or character of the possible suitor, what really concerns those girls are whether or not they have houses, the size of the houses, and wealthy bank account and someday also a fancy car. One famous case involves Ma Nuo, a 22-year-old girl who showed up on Chinas most popular dating show, If You Are the One. She arrogantly rejected a male contestantâ€™s invitation of bike riding and then came up with the famous and controversial reply, Id rather cry in a BMW car than laugh on the backseat of a bicycle. Ma is not the only one, there are far more girl participants thinking and acting just like her. These girls on the stage represent and reflect this generationâ€™s materialism that has become the trends in our society. These girls bring materialism to their dating has brought up social controversy. Chen Zhigang, a critic and playwright, said, They have grown up in a society that is quickly accumulating material wealth. They are snobbish. They worship money, cars and houses because the highly developing economy has made them do so.â€ This phenomenon is unimaginable back in the China 10, 20 years ago. Are those material girls wrong and superficial? Or is it an improvement in China showing nowadays people are becoming more and more realistic? Some people disdain this materialism while some others say itâ€™s understandable. This is a very controversial question brought up by the dating shows that worth thinking about. Sheng Nan and Sheng Nu (singles who are in their late 20s and over 30) The popularity of television dating programs reflects a collective anxiety of single people, particularly the colony of sheng nan, sheng nu, and their families, said Xiang Jianxin, vice-president of Baihe.com, a dating network company. Dating shows provides lots of Sheng nan and Sheng nu a platform to meet potential date so they often appear on the dating shows. They tend to be successful on their career but they donâ€™t have much time in their life to meet potential dates and need help on finding a good relationship. Unlike the old China, where young men and women would get marry at very young ages like 20 or younger, peopleâ€™s marry age seems to keep postponing. More and more young people are now focusing on establishing their career instead of finding a good marriage. Therefore, as they get older, they start to be anxious about this marriage thing under the pressure from their family and society. Compared to ancient China, although women in modern China are offered a lot more opportunities to take positions and influence society in their own way, traditional patriarchal values still play an important role. Influenced by such social atmosphere, women are always look for men who are more wealthy and successful than themselves, while men prefer women who have inferior education, incomes or intelligence than they do. This situation can be considered as a social dilemma, which was very much brought up by the dating shows. Conversations on the topic of career verses love can often be viewed on the stage of the dating show. How will this complex be solved? People are very interested in this controversial social problem. 5.Commercial reasons Television companiesâ€™ commercial exploitation Commercial exploitation means media or business company hype for their own benefits. By exaggerating, normally they can reach the commercial effect that regular news or advertisement canâ€™t. Usually commercial exploitations are well planned and fellow some routine. The show is as dramatic as a TV soap opera, says Liu Tingting, a married office worker in Beijing and regular viewer of the show. Browsing the comments for the shows on the Internet, you can see many people pointing out that plenty of the dramatic plots and conversations happen in the dating show are planned ahead. Sometimes the television company pays for some pretty women to participate the show and those women are simply acting on the stage. Cha (2012) claims that dating shows are also in the show business and are counted as entertaining shows. This means its ultimate goal is to entertaining the public and to increase its viewer base. Finally it benefits from the popularity. So those participants are used as tools to become popular by the shows in some way. Also, the host and the guest experts play very important roles in the shows. They sometimes judge the participants, sometimes make fun of them and always come up with dramatic comments. Television company draws viewersâ€™ attention by presenting dramatic and controversial scenes on the stages, and eventually reach their goal of profiting. Therefore, in some way, the reason why dating shows are so popular in China is television companiesâ€™ commercial exploitation. Personal commercial exploitation Like television companies, there are certain kinds of people who want to become famous by showing up in the public, in this case, the stage of popular dating shows. This is also called commercial exploitation. Nowadays in China, attending dating shows has somehow become a shortcut of become a celebrity. Now we have already got a bunch of dating show stars, some of who have now even starting to take commercial offers and have made a lot of money. Remember the BMW girl Ma Nuo? She can be a great case here. Ma Nuo, a shallow, sharp-tongued, single girl, treats her chastity like used toilet paper because she wants to be a super star, one netizen, Wang Xi Jie, wrote on the popular Internet forum Tianya.cn. There is one article on the Chinanews online that talked about this personal commercial exploitation phenomenon. In this article, the author pointed out that nowadays is getting more and more common to have different girls commercial exploiting themselves on the dating shows and listed several popular ways of how they did it. By being typical material girl, by being cute like a child, by talking in a very sweet voice, by making shocking decisions, by being intellectual and by posting sexy photos can all be the methods of becoming famous. Those girls who acting like this have started to make money by their popularity. In Chinese society, now so many young people want to become famous by taking shortcut rather than making effort. So due to the fact that one can easily be known by the public simply by being dramatic, dating shows become more and more popular with the young girl.
Ethics is a branch of philosophy that focuses on the moral, philosophical characteristics from formal, systematic and ethical principles. Moral judgments are calculated from ethical principles which need to be applied as a standard for everyday choices in life and business. This is directly related to the decisions human beings make. Cavico (2009) states utilitarianism is more than just moral philosophy. It is a way of reformation and used extensively in government decision making. This will be discussed further in the Bank of America-Merrill Lynch merger.Utilitarianism is considered a scientific system of ethics and not just a philosophical theory of ethics. Utilitarian ethics follows the belief of maximizing the greatest good for the largest number of people. As utilitarianism is identified, one needs to learn that the greatest good could be based on aggregate principle or a distributive principle. The Bank of America-Merrill Lynch merger will be assessed in regards to who, what and how the greater good will be affected in this merger. Within utilitarianism, a moral philosophy is developed that focuses on the consequences of specific actions.An action is done, then observed and then analyzed. After identifying all the people that were involved, one needs to ask the question, â€œDo the sum of good consequences outweigh the sum of the bad consequences? â€ Quantify all the good and bad consequences in the scenario and if the good consequences are greater than the bad consequences then the action was moral and vice versa. In this paper, the actions of the Bank of America-Merrill Lynch merger will be discussed, evaluated and quantified with the Richard DeGeorge Utilitarian perspective.Pinpointing the stakeholders in this case will show who was direct and indirectly affected and how they were affected. Furthermore, it will be discussed the overall affect it had on society from a global perspective, reaction from competitive markets and the economic impact it created within the United States and worldwide. Critical points and actions will dominate the course of action on how utilitarian ethics was applied in this situation. Identifying the individual people or groups that were in this scenario will be evaluated on a pleasure v. ain scale where it will show the extent of good or bad in the situation and the possible outcomes that followed. The pleasure v. pain comparison will then be quantified on a grading scale that represents extreme pleasures and pains in Bank of America-Merrill Lynch merger. After totaling up the good and the bad points, it will determine if the actions in this merger were moral. In late 2008, Bank of America and Merrill Lynch were in negotiations for a business deal. Bank of America was going to buy Merrill Lynch for one of the largest bank mergers and acquisitions in the world.On the surface, Bank of America thought the merger was a good idea and a good business deal to pursue. Former Chief Executive of Bank of America, Kenneth Lewis, and the board of Bank of America saw this business deal as a way to expand into different sectors of the financial markets and strengthen many of its counterparts. With all the extensive financial records of both companies and balance sheet assessments, the deal looked great for smooth sailing. Catastrophically, the deal went through and contributed towards a massive failure in our financial markets that affected and crippled everyone worldwide.The private deal that once seemed so good has now become a nightmare. All of a sudden, the government has stepped in and has announced it will give twenty billion dollars in assistance from tax payerâ€™s money. Investors and the public were shocked something of this magnitude was happening and felt betrayed, cheated and crippled. Within all the mayhem, the actions that will be evaluated come from Merrill Lynch and Bank of America and their failures to disclose pertinent financial information that would have shown greater losses than expected.United States (2009) stated the lack of transparency to investors and to the public showed that there was a negative atmosphere among them that they feared to disclose from the public. In addition to this, rumors circulated that the government had ties to this merger and flexed its power in order to make the merger happen. There were a great amount of people affected in this merger. Merrill Lynch as a company was being bought out in order to be saved financially. Merrill Lynchâ€™s investors, shareholders and CEO, John Thain were a part of this corporation.Bank of America was the number one candidate for purchasing Merrill Lynch at the time. Bank of Americaâ€™s investors, shareholders and CEO, Kenneth Lewis were all a part of this major merger. United States (2009) includes the Secretary of the Treasury, Hank Paulson and Chairman of the Federal Reserve, Ben Bernanke were on the governmental side of this merger that apparently knew what was going on and forcefully made Bank of America buyout Merrill Lynch. This merger can also contribute to affecting the general public, global economies cross the world and the financial banking industry. As this case develops, there is uncertainty that Merrill Lynch and former CEO, John Thain, have to reveal massive amounts of losses and at one point a fourth quarter loss of fifteen billion dollars. In response, former CEO of Bank of America, Kenneth Lewis analyzes this and decides it may not be a good idea to pursue the merger. Secretively, the Fed, Paulson and Bernanke force Lewis to buy into the deal because if he doesnâ€™t this could create a complete and total meltdown of the financial systems.Utilitarian ethics was used by considering the global economy; the government had to step in to minimize the blow as best as they could to help the greater good of society. In addition to this, there has been speculation that if Lewis hides these huge losses before the merger and reveals them after the merger he could gain more government help in regards to the massive hit Bank of America now faces. Although the economy is in a meltdown and financial banks are getting hit harder than ever before, this merger may prove to save some of our largest financial institutions and lessen the blow of a complete loss for the global economy.On one spectrum of the scale we have the financial banks abusing high leverage investments in order to gain more money without caring about negative consequences but then on the other hand, the nation is faced with minimizing damages and saving as much as it can because in a result of total loss, the public could be in a greater state economic loss. With Merrill Lynch being saved and Bank of America taking on the bigger role of keeping afloat, Merrill Lynch now has the opportunity to be bought out and saved compared to total collapse and bankruptcy.In this case, it was a smart move for Merrill Lynch to be acquired by Bank of America and a foreseeable good in the future of the financial markets. Kenneth Lewis took the daunting task of acquiring Merrill Lynch and the bad debt expense that the company brought with it. Acquiring Merrill Lynch would provide a huge blow to Bank of America at first but restructuring and getting government help in the merger would prove to be a successful task that would provide foreseeable good in the future. Some people believe that Paulson and Bernanke used their governmental power to make this merger happen.Bank of Americaâ€™s Acquisition (2009) states they forced Kenneth Lewis to buyout Merrill Lynch and if not Kenneth Lewis and the board of Bank of America would have been terminated. Although this may have been a threatening action, it was in the governmentâ€™s best interest to make this merger go through or a total collapse of the financial markets would be devastating for the American population and further seep into global chaos. It is a very tough situation to assess but following Utilitarianism considered the greater good of the population and this needed to be done.In addition to this, individual investors were hit very hard with the downturn of the economy. In many cases, people lost more than fifty percent of their investments which sounds terrible but comparing it to a nongovernmental bailout, those individuals would be left with nothing. In this research study, it is needed to define the severity of good and bad consequences for each individual or group that was affected in this case on a numerical grading scale. Each individual or group will be considered according to the Richard DeGeorge Utilitarian approach.The scale will be ranked from +5 being the best and -5 being the worst situation from a pleasure versus pain standpoint. Merrill Lynch being bought out by Bank of America is more of a good thing. Ranking it at +2 gives Merrill Lynch and Bank of America merger the positive side because without this merger people would be in greater amounts of trouble. Ranking a +1 for investors and shareholders of each company provides a positive side of this outcome. Although investors did lose over fifty percent of investments into the companies, this loss is better than losing everything that was invested.Other financial markets were consolidated and restructured. By getting rid of bad assets, other financial institutions could start over and reinvest in the proper markets. This was also a learning lesson for the financial industry and for them to never repeat these careless mistakes again. A rank of +3 will be given to the financial markets. Hank Paul and Ben Bernanke did prove to show excessive force in making this merger happen but only in regards to saving the U. S. economy and limiting the blow that it couldâ€™ve potentially produced.Giving the government a ranking of +2 shows they provided a better option for America and the possibility of avoiding a complete financial meltdown. Assessing our global economy by looking back at it over the past five years gives it a ranking of 0. This explains that as a country and globally, we have made minimal increases in our economy. One month says we are getting back on the right track while the next month says we are sinking deeper and deeper into recession. The economy shows a recovery in the stock arket one month but the next month there is speculation that the European markets are going to crash and take everyone with them. Living in these highly volatile times gives uncertainly and fear for most investors which hinders potential growth and recovery. After summing up all the pleasure and pain rankings, the total equals +8. This shows that amidst all the chaos, deceiving and cheating, the outcome created a positive effect that saved our economy as best as possible rather than let it sink and destroy everything.This tragic merger proves to be a morally correct standpoint regardless of the tough actions that were taken in order to achieve this outcome. No individual cheated the system or manipulated the system in order to gain financial strength. It was in the best interest of the individual companies and the U. S. economy to keep them in tact or greater consequences couldâ€™ve occurred. Saving two of our largest banks provides us with a loss in investments but something that would be accepted rather than total and complete collapse of our financial systems.Primary Source: United States. (2009). Bank of America and Merrill Lynch: How did a private deal turn into a federal bailout? : joint hearing before the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform and the Subcommittee on Domestic Policy, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, first session. Washington: U. S. G. P. O. Secondary Source: Bank of Americaâ€™s Acquisition of Merrill Lynch: A â€œShotgun Mergerâ€?. (2009, June 16). My Bank Tracker. Retrieved August 4, 2012, from www. mybanktracker. com/news/2009/06/16/bank-of-americas-acquisition-of-merrill-lynch-a-shotgun-merger/